در مطلب حاضر مي توانيد سه قاعده ارائه شده توسط پيرسون هاپر در مورد ترجمه را مطالعه نماييد
ADVICE TO TRANSLATORS
Three Little Rules, by H. Pearson Hopper
1. If you have time, look up every word—especially the words you know.
2. When in doubt, stay as close as possible to the original.
3. Read the entire original text before starting your translation.
Comments by his son, Paul T. Hopper
1. Among the problems that can be caused by "the words you know" are problems with misleading cognates ("false friends"--for example, pathos/Pathos/pafos in French/German/Russian should usually be rendered as English "fervor" or "emotional charge" or even "rhetoric/bombast" rather than "pathos"); and with additional meanings of words that you know only in one or two of the more common meanings. Once you have learned to avoid the traps of false friends, and once you have learned the less common meanings in their appropriate contexts, presumably you need not continue to look every word up every time.
A corollary: Terms in aviation and related fields should be looked up first in an aviation dictionary (Rowland A. Wells, Kurt F. Leidecker, A. M. Murashkevich); medical terms should be looked up first in a medical dictionary; etc. General terms and terms whose field you`re not sure of should be looked up first in a general dictionary. And when bilingual dictionaries prove inadequate, other kinds of research will be required, starting with the office card file (if your office has one), proceeding to other reference works, and ending with the consultation of experts, when available. (Hilary Uyehara points out that the creation of characters by someone writing in Japanese (etc.) may stymie most of these research approaches. Consult the author?)
2. If you stick close to the original, even if what you produce is not correct in the target language, an informed reader may be able to infer what the correct target-language version should be. But if you commit yourself to an uninformed guess, even the best-informed reader may be baffled.
This hint applies only if you are in doubt. Obviously, if you already know, or are now reliably informed of, a correct target-language equivalent, no matter how little it resembles the expression in the original, you will use it.
On the other hand, if you are totally at a loss, you should quote the original expression, with as much context as you consider necessary, and in square brackets provide either your best guess (if you have any) or the explanation "equivalent not known." This is a last resort, if all the research approaches outlined above prove fruitless.
3. There are several reasons for reading the entire original first. One is that there may be textual or contextual meanings that are not obvious from the first few paragraphs. And this does not apply solely to literary or philosophical texts. Later passages may also be helpful in guiding you in your choice of dictionaries and other reference works.
Another reason is that terms which are puzzling in the early part of the text may be explained later. A scholarly publication may have a bibliography that includes some titles in your target language—a particularly useful source of terms—or even a glossary. It’s true that most translators have word processors now, and if you mistranslate a term but later find a better equivalent, you can go back and make a global change. But it might be advisable not to rely too much on this crutch, especially if you find yourself dealing with several recurrent problem terms.
If time is short, it is still a good idea to read a few paragraphs at the beginning and at the end, and to look through the intervening text for headings or graphics or other guideposts, perhaps reading a sentence or two here and there. Time spent on this will often pay off in quality—sometimes even in editing time saved.