||This book presents a range of research and clinical contributions, including observational studies, practical treatment examples, diagnostic test assessment, biomarkers, and systematic reviews. The objective is to seek to explain the processes or mechanisms whereby abnormal or undesired conditions develop and progress. The attention is given to disturbed carbohydrate metabolism in perpetuation of respiratory ailments or raising therapeutic problems. The psychosocial context of chronic respiratory conditions is tackled as well. Oxidative stress is conducive to both physical and cognitive aging, which raises the specter of using its biochemical markers in future antiaging therapeutic strategies. Critical information provided in the contributions will allow readers to make informed judgments. The book will hopefully serve to create awareness and apprehension about the developments in the field of pneumology and related areas of medical research.