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نقش حروف اضافه در اصطلاحات ترکیبی مربوط به زمان

بند 78- حروف اضافه زمان و تاریخ

الف- حرف اضافه مربوط به زمان

At a time: e.g. at six o’clock, at noon, at midnight.

On a day: e.g. on Monday, on July 21st, on Christmas Day.

In a period: e.g. in August, in 1914, in summer, in the morning, in the afternoon.

استثنائات:

At night

At Christmas/ at Easter (the period generally, not the day only)   

On the morning/afternoon/evening of a certain date:

The battle started on the morning of the 24th.

ب- حروف اضافه به همراه عبارت های زمانی به عنوان اصطلاح:

On time = at the time arranged.

In time = not late.

The 10 a.m. train started on time (= at 10 a.m.).

We were in time for the train (= we arrived before 10 a.m.).

اصطلاح in time، می­تواند به معنای in the end/ eventually نیز باشد:

You’ll get used to it in time.

ج- اصطلاحات زمانی:

At 6 a.m., at noon &c. = at that time precisely

By 6 a.m., by noon &c. = at that time or before it, usually before it:

Tom: I’ll be finished at six (= I’ll be working up to that time).

Ann: I’ll be finished by six (= almost certainly before six; so Ann will be finished before Tom).

د- اصطلاح زمانی ترکیبی:

At the beginning (of) = literally at the beginning

At the end (of) = literally at the end:

At the beginning of the book = in the first few pages/ on the first page

At the end of the book = in the last few pages/ on the last page

In the beginning/ at first (of is not normally used) = in the early stages, and implies a change later on:

In the beginning/ At first we used knives; later we used axes.  

In the end/ at last = eventually/ after some time:

At first he opposed the marriage but in the end he gave his consent.

 

 

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